Thyroid cancer surgeries

All the thyroid surgeries performed for beningn or malignant nodules is total thyroidectomy. The bilateral thyroid gland is removed. Since cancer foci are likely to arise in people operated due to goitre, the surgeries are performed removing the thyroid gland totally.  Thus, the recurrence of the disease is prevented and the efficacy of the radioactive iodine treatment is ensured in case of need.


Bilateral thyroid gland is removed in papillary thyroid carcinomas. In some patients, if the diameter of the cancerous nodule is less than 1 cm, lateral thyroidectomy can be performed. If there is lymph node metastasis, a "neck dissection" or in other words "lymph dissection" is also performed.  Central or lateral lymph nodes of the neck are removed.  If the tumor diameter is larger than 4 cm in diameter, lymph nodes are removed even if there is no lymph node metastasis.


In follicular thyroid cancers, bilateral thyroid gland is removed.  If there is lymph node metastasis, they are also removed.


In medullary thyroid carcinomas, bilateral thyroid gland and the central lymph nodes are removed regardless of tumor size.  If metastasis occurs in the lateral lymph nodes, the lymph nodes in those parts are also removed.


Surgery is not beneficial for anaplastic cancer.  If the patient develops respiratory distress, tracheotomy is performed which means opening a hole in the neck.


      

Total thyroidectomy with the diagnosis of benign goitre (removal of bilateral thyroid gland)

      

Removal of thyroid glands and lymphatic glands in surgeries for thyroid cancer