Anti TPO and Anti Tg antibodies

Antibody levels should be investigated for those with a serum TSA level above 4 mIU/L.  Investigating serum anti TPO and anti-Tg allows chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, in other words Hashimoto, to be diagnosed.  Elevated level of anti-TPO is seen in 90-95% of patients with Hashimoto's disease and in 60-90% of patients with Basedow disease.   Anti-TPO antibody is more determinative in the diagnosis and follow-up of thyroiditis diseases. High antibodies are the indicative for the recurrence of thyroiditis and the increased risk of hypothyroidism. Thyroid gland lymphoma should be taken in consideration at very high anti TPO levels.

Thyroglobulin (Tg) and Anti Tg

Tg and anti Tg are used for following up papillary thyroid carcinoma . Both are very important laboratory measurements for following up cancer. Anti-Tg is not as important as anti-TPO in the diagnosis of  thyroiditis .

Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis factitia) caused by the intake of more thyroid hormones from the outside is differentiated from other toxic goiter types by Tg measurement.   

TSH receptor antibody

It is used for diagnosing Graves' disease (diffuse toxic goiter)  If clinical findings are sufficient (such as protruding eyeballs), there is no need to test this antibody. The effect of drug treatment in Graves' disease can be predicted by investigating TSH receptor antibody. If a decrease is seen at antibody levels during the treatment of Graves' disease, it indicates that the disease is less likely to recur. However, there are Graves patients who experience recurrences although they have decreased antibody levels.